Generally, steel collector rings have good wear resistance and high mechanical strength, so they are mostly used in synchronous motors with worn collector rings caused by polarity. Steel can be processed into complex structures. It is an easily available and inexpensive material. Therefore, it is widely used in synchronous motors, including hydroelectric generators with low circumferential speed. For collector rings like turbogenerators, which emphasize mechanical strength and wear resistance at high circumferential speeds, forged steel is sometimes used. In addition, stainless steel can be used when corrosion resistance is required, but the sliding characteristics of stainless steel are unstable, and improper combination with brush often causes the brush to jump, which is easy to cause excessive temperature rise or abnormal wear. Therefore, more attention must be paid when using the brush. Compared with steel collector rings, copper collector rings, such as bronze castings, have good sliding characteristics, so they are widely used. However, when containing a large amount of low melting point lead, lead removal occurs due to the heating of the electrifying point, which easily causes abnormal wear of collector rings or brushes.
When the abrasiveness of the brush is too strong and the material of the collector ring is too soft, the step wear of the collector ring which corresponds to the width of the brush often occurs. Especially the closed motor with high temperature and low humidity is more likely to cause excessive wear of brush or collector ring. The duplicate image scar is formed in this way. At first, there are only very small scars. The electric brush collects electricity poorly in these areas and produces sparks. Once sparks occur, the scars gradually deteriorate and expand, and eventually form a scar of the same size as the sliding contact surface of the brush. Therefore, even if the collector ring brush produces very small sparks, it must be paid attention to.
In order to prevent serious duplicate image scars on steel collector rings, brushes should be raised when the motor is shut down for a long time. In order to improve the current distribution of parallel brushes, the switching point of sliding contact surface of collector ring can be moved. In order to obtain good sliding characteristics, it is effective to open spiral inclined grooves on collector ring.
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